If you are reading this you are probably interested not just in free market advocacy but also the moral, social and economic philosophies in the public square. Below, I share my current favorite thinkers worth examining. As a number of these thinkers are in opposition to one another, I hope it will be clear I do not fully agree with any single entry below. Further, my attempt to reduce what is often a lifetime’s worth of work to a listicle paragraph will fall short in capturing each person, so I encourage anyone who finds any of these people interesting to reach out or to embark on your own search for more on these great figures.
The recently deceased father of mimetic theory was one of the foremost philosophers of the twentieth century. A man whose thoughts went beyond any simple classification, he began his work as a literary critic with an eye toward psychology and anthropology. In his observations of Dostoevsky, Shakespeare and others, he came to develop his theory that human conflict does not arise from our differences but from our similarities. He came to see the only way societies deal with the problem of mimesis was to use a scapegoat mechanism, but his thoughts went from academic to apocalyptic when he turned back to the Catholic religion of his youth. In rediscovering the cultural roots of his native France (and adopted American homeland) and taking the Christian religion literally and seriously, he became gripped with the fear that the foundations of Christianity lay bare the essential myth required for societies to hold together. In his final years, he explored these themes as they play out in a globalization that wipes away differences and the nature of the violence of modern terrorism. While not clear from the outset, MBA students can learn a great deal from Girard- his thoughts help explain why we tend to gravitate toward the last big trend in business and why some companies on campus get hundreds of students for a handful of internship spots.
Related: There are a number of figures who influenced Girard, including Leo Strauss, Carl Schmitt and Jacques Lacan. Interestingly, Girardian thought, broadly applied, may inform the strategists of the current White House, as remarks by Steve Bannon and Peter Thiel have shown. Thiel, of course, was an undergraduate philosophy student of Rene Girard at Stanford. An author who seems to operate in the same world of mimetic violence would be Don DeLillo, whose books Point Omega, White Noise and most recently, Zero-K explore ennui and the post-modern condition.
The co-founder of PayPal and an early investor in Facebook, Peter Thiel’s business success needs little introduction to a business school student. His Zero to One dominated the New York Times bestseller list, adopted from publicly available notes on a course he taught at Stanford. His politics has been long-informed by his former professor, Rene Girard, especially in diagnosing the problems the world has encountered since 1973. It was after that year, Thiel has often said, in which we essentially gave up on the future and put ourselves on a path in which 140 characters were more valuable than flying cars. For Thiel, it is no accident that was the last year that saw gains in median income in the United States. For years, he evangelized this unpopular notion that we are not in an enchanted forest of technological wonder but in fact a bare desert, leading him to lambast Eric Schmidt as being “the chief propogandist of Google.” Politically, Thiel has drifted from supporting libertarian candidates like Ron Paul to forcefully supporting fellow billionaire Donald Trump in a primetime speech at the Republican National Convention and at the Washington Press Club. Long a supporter of technologies with long development pipelines (like life extension and building floating cities in the ocean) and completely new endeavors (like Palantir and the Thiel Fellow program that pays students to drop out of college), his investment in the Trump campaign has paid dividends as he now serves as an informal advisor to the White House. Not known for pronunciations of optimism for the modern state of politics, it is likely he holds the current moment as having the most promise in decades.
Related: His friends Elon Musk, Reid Hoffman, Max Levchin are all worth following for their insights into business and society. Thiel’s friend Garry Kasparov co-starred in an obscure documentary about them both.
The father of existentialism, this once-obscure 19th century Danish philosopher proposed a radical interpretation of Christianity that makes much of modern commentary almost impossible to take seriously. Observing that “Subjectivity as Truth”, in that subjectivity is that which emerges from the relationship between the individual and the object in question. While not discounting entirely the role of science, this assertion had implications for how the natural world was being observed, not to mention the obvious problems that arise from the study of history. Helpfully for MBA students going struggling through substantial life decisions, he also reflected that “Anxiety precedes sin”, in that the former is one of the oldest states of human experience and is the product of facing the immense freedom humans have over their own lives. Reflecting his philosophy, Kierkegaard’s thoughts were dispersed in a disorganized fashion across pseudonyms, short stories, letters, plays and books, often taking different sides of an argument to make a wider point. Unlike Nietzsche, Sartre, and the endless line of existentialists that came after him, Kierkegaard saw Christianity’s central paradoxes and promise of personal revelation as showing a way out of the despair of a world without meaning.
Related: Much of what Kierkegaard protested in his writings was the prevalent Hegelism of his time, and as such Hegel comes as a related recommendation. Miguel de Cervantes’ Don Quixote comes recommended as a full-length novel that anticipated Kierkegaardian thought. And not actually related philosophically, but Friedrich Engels once attended a lecture by Kierkegaard late in the Dane’s life.
The “Elvis of Cultural Theory”, Zizek may very well be the last well-known communist philosopher active in the west. Born in Yugoslavia at the dawn of the Cold War, his obscure work turned more toward popular culture analysis and an ever-more eclectic critique of global capitalism. Thus, he is known to attack German bondholders of Greek debt in one breath and DreamWorks pictures for Kung-Fu Panda in the next. His value to those of us who could do without Marx is not just in his push against political correctness but in dismembering the banal assertions of mainstream cultural and political commentators. For Zizek, the assertion of “unbiased” news is an obvious lie- rather, there are “unknown knowns”, those things we do not know we know, i.e. ideology. An example of this would be that you are reading this extended listicle because you do not consciously think this is worth your time- you do not know that you know it is worth it.
Related: Zizek is possibly most important due to his outsized influence on the modern left. He wrote one of the opening editorials in The Jacobin, one of the most important magazines for leftist thought today.
The late Christopher Hitchens is famous for many things, including his conversion from Trotskyist to neoconservative during the 2000s. A contrarian who literally wrote the book, he attacked a number of sacred cows, from Princess Diana to Mother Theresa to the idea of the sacred itself. Never one to shy away from a debate, his “Debate of the Decade” with George Galloway regarding the Iraq War still stands as a convincing argument for liberal interventionism, as does his unrelenting defense of enlightenment values of free speech and inquiry. While on the record on doubting the current President’s political offer and the appropriateness of having a supposedly unideological figure in charge, there was no doubt how he felt about the Clintons. His definition of public intellectual helped inform this list, and while there is likely not a single person in the world that agrees with all his views, the world would be a better place if we had more journalists like him.
Related: The journalist Michael Tracey is the closest thing we have right now to the idiosyncratic Hitchens. The “other Hitchens”, Peter, is a paleoconservative who, after being profoundly unhappy with politics in both sides of the Atlantic, is finally seeming to be a bit more cheerful. An interview between these two figures was just posted and worth thirty minutes of your time.
-James McKinney, outgoing VP of Programming